Central to the concept of iwi vitality is the notion that iwi are able to actively determine what matters to them from a mana whenua perspective. This paper argues that progress towards the achievement of iwi vitality can be measured in a way that is consistent with iwi values and aspirations. The paper reports on research that explores what it means to be well at the iwi level for Ngāi Tai. The research involved wānanga at Tōrere Marae with Ngāi Tai participants and14 “expert” interviews. A Ngāi Tai Vitality Outcomes Framework is presented. The framework provides a mechanism through which Ngāi Tai, and potentially other iwi, are able to align their efforts towards identified iwi-specific vitality outcomes, effectively monitor what matters and plan for the future towards the realisation of iwi vitality.