Throughout history, indigenous peoples have demonstrated remarkable resilience in the face of significant adversity with this being demonstrated in the response of indigenous peoples to HIV, one of the greatest threats to health and well-being faced by people and communities today. High rates of HIV infection, combined with signifi cant social determinants of health, intensify and compound the vulnerability of indigenous peoples and communities to HIV. Evidence shows that indigenous peoples in some countries have been disproportionately affected by HIV and suffer from significant disparities related to high rates of chronic conditions, including long-term HIV infection.
This article explores the development of Māori and Indigenous frameworks of resilience, considering the impact of engaging with largely State-led notions of resilience on Māori development. We highlight the closely linked notion of resistance, asserting the necessity of a fi rm political analysis from Indigenous researchers engaged in this discourse. One of the Indigenous criticisms of resilience theories is that by defi nition they assume an acceptance of responsibility for our position as disadvantaged individuals.