This article explores the development of Māori and Indigenous frameworks of resilience, considering the impact of engaging with largely State-led notions of resilience on Māori development. We highlight the closely linked notion of resistance, asserting the necessity of a fi rm political analysis from Indigenous researchers engaged in this discourse. One of the Indigenous criticisms of resilience theories is that by defi nition they assume an acceptance of responsibility for our position as disadvantaged individuals. That is, by examining and developing theories and models of resilience we buy into the idea that this is the way it is and we need simply to get better at bouncing back and being resilient. Resistance, however, represents an approach of collective fight-back, exposing the inequitable distribution of power, and actively opposing negative social, political and economic influences. This article represents a Māori Indigenous political response to the resilience discourse.