This article explores the development of Māori and Indigenous frameworks of resilience, considering the impact of engaging with largely State-led notions of resilience on Māori development. We highlight the closely linked notion of resistance, asserting the necessity of a fi rm political analysis from Indigenous researchers engaged in this discourse. One of the Indigenous criticisms of resilience theories is that by defi nition they assume an acceptance of responsibility for our position as disadvantaged individuals.
Āhuatanga Māori is at the forefront of an education students can expect to receive at a Māori tertiary organisation. Mainstreaming e-Education involves normalising electronic modes of teaching and learning into a conventional face-to-face teaching and learning tertiary environment. Conscientisation, resistance and transformative praxis are processes or stages that conventional teachers experience when faced with new electronic modes of course delivery.