There have been many attempts at measuring Māori identity and cultural engagement, yet there have been no scales created to specifically explore whanaungatanga. Whanaungatanga can be operationalised as active participation in and a sense of belonging to social groups and collective, reciprocal caring relationships. In this article, we document the development of a whanaungatanga scale alongside a measure of Māori identity.
Social networking sites (SNSs) have changed the ways in which we communicate and connect with others, forming new ways of communicating, building relationships, accessing information, and being self- expressive. While much of the literature around SNSs looks at social impacts, little research exists around Māori use of SNSs. Rangatahi Māori (rangatahi) are finding new ways of connecting and communicating through Facebook profi le pages and are faced with new challenges of online/offl ine variations and protocols that become blurred—particularly in online spaces.