The realisation of the developmental aspirations of Indigenous communities requires a reframing of economy and economic representation. The “diverse economies” framework provides a platform from which to counter the dominant Western narrative surrounding notions of economy, and bring to the fore forms of enterprise and practices all too often “hidden” or viewed as alternative, and therefore deemed inferior.
This article draws on the textual analysis of films that produced three distinctive collective resistances across New Zealand film history. Hāhi Ringatū leaders protested to the Chief Censor about the portrayal of their beloved prophet Te Kooti in the Te Kooti Trail. The director was forced to make changes, and delayed the release. Later, after decades of support, Te Arawa were collectively absent from film production for nearly 40 years after director Alexander Markey insulted their manaakitanga with a series of misdemeanours during the production of Under the Southern Cross.
Young Māori parents strategically navigate Western parenting expectations, and issues of indigeneity in their construction of early parenting. A culturally based narrative approach to research with young Māori parents revealed personal stories of early parenting located in wider expectations from family and peers, their Indigenous community and society. The application of a Māori relational analytical framework reveals how young Māori parents navigate and negotiate assumptions about being young and being Māori.
This paper outlines key categories and elements of Kia Manawanui: Kaupapa Māori Film Theoretical Framework, developed to interrogate film texts and shed light on the processes of Māori film production and environments within which filmmakers operate. Kia Manawanui film theory is informed by diverse expressions of Kaupapa Māori , Indigenous and critical media studies, discussions with Māori filmmakers, theorists and film texts, particularly Ngati (1987), Mauri (1988) and Te Tangata Whai Rawa o Wēniti—The Māori Merchant of Venice (2002).
Kua hau ngä rongo o te hangarau i te mata o te whenua, me uaua ka kitea he tangata kāore i te whakamahi i tētahi momo hangarau—te pouaka whakaata, te waea pūkoro, te rorohiko, me te ipurangi. Katoa ēnei nei mea he uri nō te wāhiaotanga, ā, he whakangāwari i te horapa o ngā mea katoa ki ngā hau e whā o te ao. Ko te ito o tēnei tuhinga roa he titiro ki ngā mata e rua o te hangarau, arā, te mata i tāmi i te iwi Māori, me te mata i whakawhanake i te iwi Māori.
He aha te reo Māori i ngaro ai ki Ōtākou? He hiahia nō te hapū ki te whai i te rākau a te Pākehā. I whai rātou i te mātauranga me te whakapono o te Pākehā. Waihoki, tē taea e rātou te ao hou te karo. Ahakoa tērā, kei te pupuritia tonutia ngā tikanga o te kāinga. I uiuitia tētahi Taua o te kāinga e te kaituhi, ko Aunt Jean tōna ingoa ki te kāinga. Kei roto ia i te reanga tuatahi i tipu ki te reo Pākehā ki Ōtākou. He tino kaumātua o te kāinga, ā, i tau hoki tana tū ki tōna ao Māori. Ahakoa kāore ōna reo Māori, ehara i te mea, i te tangi ia mō te reo kei te memeha atu.
Ko Parihaka tētehi papa kāinga ki te rohe o Taranaki Iwi, e tū takawaenga nei i te takutai moana me te tapa ngahere o te mounga, waihoki, e tū toro ana ki te uru rawa o te kūreitanga o Taranaki. Nā ngā rangatira, a Tohu Kākahi rāua ko Te Whiti-ō-rongomai i whakaara hei kāinga whai tikanga hou i te Hānuere o te tau 1866. I roto i ngā tau whai muri ka piki te tini tāngata i noho ki Parihaka ki te ono mano neke atu tōna rahi. I whakatūria a Parihaka i runga i ngā tikanga o te Ririkore, o te mahi tahi me te rangatiratanga o te iwi Māori.
Mai anō ngā terenga waka a te Māori, ko ōna kōrero tuku iho i whakatauira tuatahingia e ngā atua tonu, taka mai ki te iwi tāngata o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Tā tēnei tuhinga, he wānanga i te mana o te kōrero tuku iho e haupū nei ngā pūrākau terenga waka onamata i takoto ai te tūāpapa mātauranga whakatere mō ngā waka tūpuna i heke iho i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa. Nō reira, ka riariakina ngā pūtoi whakatauiratanga waka a te Māori i ōna atua me ōna tūpuna me te ahunga mai o ana terenga mātāmua, ka aromātai hoki i te takiwā o ngā tau i tauria ai e ōna takere Te Ika-a-Māui e takoto nei.
Kua whakapau kaha te mahi a te tangata ki te whakahaumanu i te reo Māori. I whakamanahia ā-turetia te reo Māori, ā, kua whakaputahia ētahi rautaki reo Māori mō te whenua. Heoi, kāore anō te reo Māori kia māori i ngā wāhi katoa o te hapori. Ko ngā marae, ko ngā kura Māori, ko ngā āhuatanga Māori kē ngā wāhi ‘tika’ mō te reo Māori. Ka aro tēnei pepa ki te reo Māori ki roto i tētahi wāhanga kē o te porihanga, arā, ko ngā hinonga kāwanatanga.